Debra Wood, RN
Sexual activity is the most likely way to become infected with
HIV. People infected with HIV may not look sick. There is no way to tell if your partner has HIV without having been tested. Take precautions when engaging in intercourse or any other sexual act that results in an exchange of body fluids.
Suggestions to lower your risk include:
In addition, being
may also reduce the risk of HIV.
Using a needle or syringe contaminated with HIV-infected blood can cause you to become infected. Do not share needles with anyone.
Remember that people may not even be aware that they have HIV.
HIV is transmitted through infected blood and body fluids. When caring for patients:
Blood products are screened for HIV, but there is still a small risk because tests cannot detect HIV immediately after transmission. To reduce your risk of contracting HIV through blood products, consider donating your own blood for elective surgical procedures.
To prevent spreading HIV to others if you are HIV infected:
Adult male circumcision significantly reduces risk of acquiring HIV. National Institutes of Health website Available at:
http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/dec2006/niaid-13.htm. Accessed December 13, 2006.
Alan R. HIV and AIDS. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated October 2009. Accessed June 4, 2010.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010.
Conn HF, Rakel RE.
Conn's Current Therapy 2001. 53rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2001.
HIV/AIDS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/. Updated September 2008. Accessed September 25, 2008.
HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at:
http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/. Accessed September 25, 2008.
Noble J, Greene HL.
Textbook of Primary Care Medicine. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc; 2000.
3/8/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagard E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial.
2005;2:e298. Epub Oct 25, 2005.
Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial.
2007 Feb 24;369:643-656.
Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial.
2007 Feb 24;369:657-666.
6/11/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: Del Romero J, Castilla J, Hernando V, Rodríguez C, García S. Combined antiretroviral treatment and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1: cross sectional and prospective cohort study.
Last reviewed December 2011 by Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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