| Risk Factors
The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands. They are located next to the thyroid gland in the neck. The glands secrete the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH helps to regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
In hypoparathyroidism, there is not enough PTH secreted. This causes low levels of calcium in the blood. Low blood calcium is known as hypocalcemia.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Posterior (Back) View
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Hypoparathyroidism may be caused by:
- Removal of the parathyroid glands
- Underlying autoimmune disorders
- Absence of the parathyroid glands at birth
- Damage to the parathyroid glands
Genetics conditions, such as
Magnesium deficiency due to
alcohol use disorder and/or malnutrition
- Other causes, such as metal overload from iron, magnesium, or aluminium
In some cases, a cause cannot be found.
Factors that may increase your chance of hypoparathyroidism include:
- Multiple autoimmune disorders
- Thyroid or parathyroid surgery
- Family history of hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism does not always cause symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they may include:
- Muscle cramps
- Difficulty with walking
- Tingling around the mouth, fingers, and toes
- Excessive nervousness
- Loss of memory
- Mood swings
Blurred vision due to
- Thin, brittle nails
- Dry and scaly skin
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Calcium and vitamin D will usually be taken indefinitely. They are often taken by mouth.
Calcium may be given by injection. This is done when immediate symptom relief is needed.
There are no current guidelines to prevent hypoparathyroidism.
Definition of hypoparathyroidism and related disorders. The Hypoparathyroidism Association website. Available at:
https://www.hypopara.org/about-hpth/definition.html. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypoparathyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114796/Hypoparathyroidism. Updated September 15, 2015. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Hypoparathyroidism. National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at:
http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/703/viewFullReport. Updated April 2, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Marx SJ. Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid disorders.
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Moffett JM, Suliburk J. Parathyroid autotransplantation.
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Testini M, Gurrado A, Lissidini G, Nacchiero M. Hypoparathyroidism after total
Minerva Chir. 2007;62(5):409-415.
Thakker RV. Genetic developments in hypoparathyroidism.
Winer KK, Ko CW, Reynolds JC, et al. Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized controlled study comparing parathyroid hormone (1-34) versus calcitriol and calcium.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Last reviewed September 2015 by James Cornell, MD
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