| Risk Factors
Hyperparathyroidism is when the body makes too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid glands make PTH which help to keep calcium levels in balance. When PTH levels are too high it causes too much calcium in the blood.
Hyperparathyroidism may be:
- Primary—a benign tumor of the parathyroid gland that makes too much PTH (most common form)
Secondary—occurs in people with long-standing
- Tertiary—occurs in people with long-standing
kidney failure and dialysis
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Posterior (Back) View
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Primary hyperparathyroidism may be caused by:
- Noncancerous tumor in the parathyroid gland—most common cause
- Familial hyperparathyroidism
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)
- Parathyroid cancer—rare
Secondary hyperparathyroidism may be caused by:
- Vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, lack of sunlight exposure, or malabsorption condition like celiac disease
- Kidney failure or other medical problems that make the body resistant to the action of the parathyroid hormone
Enlargement of the parathyroid gland is the main risk factor for tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
Hyperparathyroidism is more common in women, especially after
menopause. It is also more common in people older than 50 years of age. Other factors that may increase your chance of hyperparathyroidism include:
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia
- Having specific genetic factors that increase your risk
- Radiation therapy
to the head or neck during childhood
The level of calcium in the blood will determine the symptoms. Symptoms occasionally seen with primary hyperparathyroidism include:
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Frequent and sometimes painful urination due to kidney stones
- Muscle weakness
- Joint pain
- Memory loss
- Back pain
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
- Technetium 99m sestamibi scan—a that uses safe nuclear molecules to make pictures of the parathyroid glands to help locate a single parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism
Other tests may be done to look for other problems hyperparathyroid may cause:
Treatment will be based on the type of hyperparathyroidism. Options may include the following:
- If a growth is causing the problems, surgery may be done to remove the growth
Hyperparathyroidism due to a vitamin D deficiency may be treated with medications
- Treating underlying causes
- Medication to manage possible side effects or keep calcium levels more normal
Your doctor may choose to regularly check your blood calcium levels and monitor you for possible complications. This may include regular bone density tests every 1-2 years.
Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake may play a role in preventing hyperparathyroidism in women. Try to get recommended levels of calcium through dietary choices and supplements.
Hyperparathyroidism: Treatment. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/hyperparathyroidism/treatment.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed February 17, 2016.
Hyperparathyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113972/Hyperparathyroidism. Updated December 10, 2015. Accessed February 17, 2016.
Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.
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Taniegra E. Hyperparathyroidism.
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11/26/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113972/Hyperparathyroidism: Paik J, Curhan G, Taylor EN. Calcium intake and risk of primary hyperparathyroidism in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e6390.
Last reviewed April 2017 by Michael Woods, MD FAAP
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