| Risk Factors
Histoplasmosis is afungal infection that usually affects the lungs.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Histoplasmosis is caused by a specific fungus. People often become infected when they inhale the fungus. The fungus can become airborne in dust or debris during demolition projects. People can also come in contact with the fungus through contact with soil contaminated with bat or bird droppings.
Factors that may increase your chance of exposure to histoplasmosis include:
- Having a job that puts you in contact with bird or bat droppings, such as in an aviary
- Being involved in activities that put you in contact with bird or bat droppings, such such as cave exploration
- Keeping birds as pets
- Living along river valleys
- Living in Mississippi, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, or Tennessee
- Living in eastern Canada, Mexico, Central or South America, parts of the Caribbean, southeast Asia, or Africa
- Having recently traveled to a location where histoplasmosis is common
Not everyone who comes in contact with the fungus will develop an infection. Medical conditions that weaken your immune system, like
HIV, cancer treatment, or having an organ transplant can increase your chance of infection.
Histoplasmosis does not generally cause symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include:
- Chest pain
- Achy muscles
- Joint pain
- Feelings of discomfort or uneasiness
- Spitting out blood
- Shortness of breath
- Weight loss
- Mouth sores
- Abdominal fullness from an enlarged liver and spleen
- Skin rashes
- Swollen lymph glands
- Loss of vision
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your body fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Blood culture
- Skin testing
- Urine antigen testing
- Bone marrow tests
Pulmonary function tests
may be done to see how much your lungs have been affected.
The immune system can often remove the fungus. People who do not have symptoms or those who have mild symptoms do not need treatment.
Antifungal medication may be needed if symptoms last for more than 1 month.
If you have a suppressed immune system, like HIV, you may need life-long antifungal medication. The medication will help to prevent a recurrence of histoplasmosis.
If you might be exposed to bird or bat droppings, wear a face mask.
If you have a weakened immune system, completely avoid:
- Any areas where you may find bird and bat droppings
- Creating or working with surface dust from soil
- Cleaning, remodeling, or demolishing old buildings
- Cleaning chicken coops
- Exploring caves
Histoplasmosis. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/histoplasmosis.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed November 16, 2015.
Histoplasmosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/histoplasmosis. Updated August 15, 2014. Accessed November 16, 2015.
Histoplasmosis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115093/Histoplasmosis. Updated August 28, 2016. Accessed September 28, 2016.
Last reviewed November 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services. All rights reserved.